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    In 1885, (the King of Belgium)Leopold’s efforts to establish Belgian influence in the Congo Basin were awarded with the État Indépendant du Congo (CFS, Congo Free State). By a resolution passed in the Belgian parliament, Leopold became Roi-Souverain of the newly formed CFS, over which he enjoyed nearly absolute control.[3]

    From 1885 to 1908, it is estimated that the Congolese native population decreased by about ten million people.[2] Historian Adam Hochshild identifies a number of causes for this loss under Leopold’s reign—murder, starvation, exhaustion and exposure, disease, and plummeting birth rates. Congolese historian Ndaywel e Nziem estimates the death toll at thirteen million.[7] Leopold capitalized on the vast wealth extracted in ivory and rubber during his twenty-three year reign of terror in the CFS. He spent some of this wealth by constructing grand palaces and monuments including the Royal Museum for Central Africa in Tervuren. Ironically, Leopold never visited the kingdom in which he committed such atrocities, to witness the tragedy of his greed.


    Philippines - Shortly after the Spanish American war of 1898, the US obtained legal right to the Philippines via the Treaty of Paris. President McKinley stated that "military occupation of the islands is declared to be to protect the people." For the president, American duty compelled the US to "uplift and civilize and Christianize them [the Philippines], and by God's grace do the very best we could for them." The Filipinos had not requested this, but their will was ignored as was their revolutionary government, and new constitution. The Filipino resistance to this American 'help,' was met with military might. The US command stated that, "it may be necessary to slaughter one-half of the rebellious Filipinos in order to bring the other half into subjection." (46)

    Well over 200,000 Filipinos lost their lives in their struggle against American imperialism. The Methodist church, great champions of this war of 'divine mission,' did not distinguish imperialism from the mission of evangelization. James Henry Potts, editor of the Michigan Christian Advocate, was so confident of the righteousness of the cause that the human cost simply did not matter and we must "conquer the rebellious Filipinos and give them the blessings of the best administration possible... Those islands are ours." Propagandists portrayed the Filipino resistance leaders as not representing the general will of the Filipinos, but were dismayed that they continued to resist. After all, Americans "knew what was best for the Filipinos," they needed American guidance, but showed "no appreciation of the fact that America had lifted the galling Spanish yoke from their necks..." [replacing it, unfortunately, with their own yoke.] (46)


    April 13, CORFU - A few days before Passover, Sarda, the local Jewish tailor's daughter, was found dead. Although Jewish, the rumors spread that she was really Christian and was killed for ritual purposes. The local community was attacked. [106] (96)


    October 20, EDUARD SCHNITZER (Emin Pasha) (1840-1892) (Austria-Africa) Was assassinated. He had taken on the Turkish name Emin Pasha and traveled throughout Africa as an explorer, linguist, adventurer, administrator, and especially as a doctor. He spent much of his time in Khartoum (in the Sudan) while serving as a governor under General Gordon. Pasha was a tireless fighter against the slave trade which was still rampant. He had returned to Central Africa on a semi-political voyage for Germany when he was murdered by slave traders. [105] (96)


    89. —. 1810-1819. The History of the Jewish People. [Online] [Cited: 5 13, 2011.] http://www.jewishhistory.org.il/history.php?startyear=1810&endyear=1819.

    90. —. 1820-1829. The History of the Jewish People. [Online] [Cited: 5 13, 2011.] http://www.jewishhistory.org.il/history.php?startyear=1820&endyear=1829.

    91. Unrau, William. The Depopulation of the Kansas Indians. HISTORICAL IMAGES AND PERSPECTIVES. 92. Tsuny, Nunna daul. THE TRAIL OF TEARS. Laughter & Lawter Genealogy. [Online] [Cited: 5 13, 2011.] http://www.laughtergenealogy.com/bin/history/tears.html. 93. Birnbaum, Eli. 1830-1839. The History of the Jewish People. [Online] [Cited: 5 13, 2011.] http://www.jewishhistory.org.il/history.php?startyear=1830&endyear=1839.

    94. —. 1840-1849. The History of the Jewish People. [Online] [Cited: 5 13, 2011.] http://www.jewishhistory.org.il/history.php?startyear=1840&endyear=1849.

    95. —. 1850-1859. The History of the Jewish People. [Online] [Cited: 5 14, 2011.] http://www.jewishhistory.org.il/history.php?startyear=1850&endyear=1859.

    96. —. 1890 - 1899. The History of the Jewish People. [Online] [Cited: 5 21, 2011.] http://www.jewishhistory.org.il/history.php?startyear=1890&endyear=1899.

    2. - Hochschild, Adam. King Leopold’s Ghost : A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston and New York, 1998.

    3. - Ewans, Martin. European Atrocity, African Catastrophe: Leopold II, the Congo Free State and its Aftermath. RoutledgeCurzon, New York, 2002.

    7. - Wrong, Michela. “Belgium confronts its heart of darkness” in The Independent, February 23, 2005. Available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/belgium-confronts-its-heart-of-darkness-484374.html. Accessed October 2011.